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广东作家网 > 专题 > 无传播不文学

无传播不文学

——在“21世纪海上丝绸之路”文学发展论坛上的发言

更新时间:2018-11-11 作者:陆彩荣 (中国)来源:广东作家网

首先预祝“21世纪海上丝绸之路”文学发展论坛圆满成功!文学,离不开传播。好的文学作品,没有有效的传播,就不可能发挥文学应有的效果。祝愿中国文学、广东文学、丝绸之路文学在新时代有新作为,产生新的精品力作,回馈当今世界广大读者。

中国外文出版发行事业局是中国业务最齐全、结构最完整、综合优势最突出的专业对外新闻出版机构。外文局旗下有外文出版社、新世界出版社、新星出版社、海豚出版社、华语教学出版社、朝华出版社、中国画报出版社等7家出版单位,每年出版4000种左右图书,其中1000种是外文图书,图书发行到世界160多个国家和地区。

在文学对外翻译出版发行方面,外文局旗下出版社近年来加大工作力度,加强与国际出版界的合作,我们与在座的印度、埃及、缅甸等国家出版单位都有合作业务,推出了20多个中国主题图书编辑部。在对外译介中国文学作品方面,我们坚持传播优秀传统文学作品,除《红楼梦》、《水浒传》、《西游记》、《三国演义》四大名著外,还译介了唐诗宋词元曲等大量中国传统文学作品,推出过《熊猫》文学丛书等介绍现当代的文学作品系列,这些外译作品已经成为国际传播中的长销作品,影响了一批又一批外国读者。在此基础上,我们加大对现代文学创作的翻译出版发行。我们与中国作协签署了战略合作协议,出版了路灯英文文学专刊,对外介绍中国文学新人新作。

文学是人学,文学无国界,语言有界限,传播无止境。言为心声,诗言志,文以载道,文以化人。文学作品是促进心灵沟通,增进感情互动,体现人文精神的重要载体。优秀的文学作品是激励人们成长、增进人类阅读快感的重要途径。古往今来,人类始终在呼唤并追求着优秀的文学作品来点亮人类的心智,增强人类前行的勇气与力量。

文学创作是作家的个体劳动成果,反映了作家的世界观、人生观、价值观。笔墨当随时代,作家要反映生活,这是最普通的文学创作共识。加速发展、进步的中国需要并且呼唤着与时代相匹配的文学精品,忠实、全面、真实而深刻地揭示中国的时代方位与历史坐标。作家既要深入生活体验生活,又要跳出生活反映生活,将时代内心深处的精气神真实、生动而富有灵性地反映出来。时代呼唤大作家。高原上需要有高峰。“一带一路”伟大构想及其在世界的实践,激发了人类奋发进取的力量和信心,“一带一路”的实践更呼唤着与之相适应的文学作品多多问世,记录人类的伟大探索,反映人类交往的心灵印迹,创新创造伟大的“一带一路”人文精神,推动世界文学在新的时代实现新的发展。

翻译是语言转换的技术性工作,是不同语言与不同语言人群之间沟通与交流的桥梁与纽带。翻译质量的高低、好坏,直接影响着文学作品跨文化交流的质量与效果。当代翻译基础迅速扩大,但翻译大师寥若晨星,高水平的文学翻译人才严重短缺。四大名著修订再版,难上加难。高水平的翻译需要学贯中西,通晓东西文化之异同。外语水平要高,达到母语程度最好。国学根基也要深厚,古代汉语、现代汉语知识要齐全,否则无以胜任高级翻译工作。

好的翻译很多都是中西结合的产物。《红楼梦》的英文译者杨宪益、戴乃迭夫妇就是一例。林语堂的许多作品都是先用英文直接写作,再翻译成汉语让国人阅读。语言的转换,是思想的转换,也是叙述方式与文字组合方式的转换。

好的翻译需要中外专家共同参与。不同的民族、不同的文化、不同的语言在表达方式、文化习俗、语言结构方面都有许多不同质的方面。好的翻译必须是融合了不同语言与不同文化的特质而自然流畅的转换,信达雅的要求永远是正确的。加强文学翻译的国际合作是一件重要而紧迫的课题。

以《习近平谈治国理政》的翻译出版为例。目前已经出版24种语言,其中10种语言是国内译者为主翻译的。其他14种是国际合作翻译的成果。重要文献的翻译从原先的初译、外国专家润色、定稿三步曲,改为初译、外国专家润色、初核、复核、定稿五道关,《习近平谈治国理政》再增加三个环节,即在复核后,又增加二次外国专家润色、核定稿人通读、再次集体讨论(通过大屏幕进行)、再读清样八道程序,从而确保了翻译质量的高水准。这本书的意大利版获得意大利文学奖就是一个明证。

文学作品需要有尽可能多的读者,影响尽可能多的受众,达到最佳传播效果。文学作品的传播是最受国际社会欢迎,也是最容易吸引读者的传播品种。文学作品以其自身的独特魅力成为国际传播的主角。外文局除了拥有出版集群外,还有承担中国图书进出口特别是出口重任的中国国际图书贸易集团公司,国图公司拥有覆盖全球的图书发行网络。亚马逊网站的中国书店就是国图公司维护运营的。线下的地面店销售更是覆盖了海外百家华文书店,国外重要图书连锁网络等。中国图书走出去中的大量工作与重点任务都是由我们国图公司承担的。在国际社交媒体传播方面,外文局拥有数十个脸谱、推特等重要社交账号,粉丝数达到千万量级,覆盖了主要国家和地区,成为微传播的重要渠道与重要阵地。

中国文化、文学与文明的国际传播是中国外文局的重中之重,我们将继续秉承向世界说明中国,让世界了解中国的使命与担当,不遗余力地向世界传播好中国文学与中国文学作品,欢迎在座的各位作者多创作可读性强、有思想有温度的精品力作,并及时与我们联系,我们愿意为大家提供全方位、多语种、广覆盖的国际传播服务。同时,在座的外国作家如果有适应中国读者阅读的优秀文学作品,我们也欢迎加强合作。去年,我们就翻译出版了时任缅甸总统之父敏杜温的文学作品集,并且在北京钓鱼台国宾馆举行了中文版首发式,总统夫妇出席。

No Communication No Literature  

Lu Cairong (China)  

                                                       First of all, I wish the Maritime Silk Road Forum on Literature Development a complete success. Literature is inseparable from communication. A good literary work without effective communication will not exert its greatest effect. I wish Chinese literature, Guangdong literature, and Silk Road literature to have new achievements in the new era, to produce new masterpieces and to give back to readers around the world.

China Foreign Languages Publishing Administration is a professional foreign language press and publication institution with the most complete business structure, the most complete organization and the most comprehensive advantages in China. The Administration has seven publishers, including Foreign Languages Press, New World Press, New Star Press, Dolphin Books, Sinolingua Press, Blossom Press, and China Pictorial Publishing House. Each year, the Administration publishes about 4,000 kinds of books, including 1000 foreign language books. The books are distributed to more than 160 countries and regions around the world.

In the field of literary translation and publication, the publishers of the Administration’s publishers have been working on strengthening cooperation with the international publishing industry. We have cooperated with some publishing companies present from India, Egypt, Myanmar and other countries and launched more than 20 China books editorial departments. In the field of the translation of Chinese literary works, we insist on spreading excellent traditional literary works. Apart from the four great classical novels of Dream of Red Mansions, Water Margin, Journey to the West and The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, we have also translated a large number of Chinese traditions such as Tang poem, Song iambic verse and Yuan drama and promoted the "Panda Books" literature series to introduce the modern and contemporary literary works. These translated works have become best sellers in international communication, leaving a profound influence on foreign readers. On this basis, we have strengthened the translation and publication of modern literary works. We have signed a strategic cooperation agreement with China Writers Association and published a special edition of Chinese literature in English—Pathlight to introduce new works by new writers.

Literature is a study about human without any border, Language has boundaries, but communication does not. Words are the voice of the mind; the poetry expresses one's will; writings are for conveying truth and influencing the public. Literary works are important carriers for promoting spiritual communication, enhancing emotional interaction and embodying humanistic spirit. Excellent literary works are an important way to inspire people to grow and enhance the pleasure of reading. Throughout the ages, human beings have been calling for and seeking excellent literary works to light up the human mind and enhance the courage and strength of moving forward.

Literary creation is result of the writer's individual effort, reflecting the writer's world outlook, outlook on life and values. Writings should keep pace with the times and reflect life. This is the most common consensus on literary creation. The fast-developing China needs and calls for literary works that keep pace with the times to reveal China's current position and historical coordinate faithfully, comprehensively, truthfully and profoundly. Writers should not only go deep into the thick of life, but also jump out of life to reflect life and reflect the spirit of the times truthfully, vividly and intelligently. As plateau needs a peak, the times call for great writers. The Belt and Road Initiative and its practice have stimulated people’s strength and confidence. The practice calls for more literary works that are adapted to it to record the exploration of human beings, reflect spiritual communication, create the "Belt and Road" humanistic spirit and promote the development of world literature in the new era.

Translation is a technical work of language conversion and a bridge for communication between different languages and different language groups. The quality of translation directly influences the quality and effect of intercultural communication of literary works. Currently, the basic translation has expanded rapidly while master translators are quite few and high-level literary translators are seriously insufficient, making the revision of the four great classical novels even harder. A high-level translator must have a thorough understanding of Chinese and Western cultures and the similarities and differences between East and West. He must be good at foreign language, better to be as good as the native speaker. Also, he should be proficient in studies of Chinese ancient civilization and complete knowledge of ancient Chinese and modern Chinese, otherwise he is not qualified for advanced translation work.

Many good translations are a combination of Chinese and the West. Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang, who translated Dream of Red Mansions into English are an example. Many of Lin Yutang's works were written in English and then translated into Chinese for Chinese readers. The conversion of language is the transformation of thoughts, of narration and of the combination of words.

Good translation requires the participation of both Chinese and foreign experts. Different nationalities, cultures and languages have many different aspects in expression, culture and custom, and language structure. Good translation must be a natural and smooth conversion that combines the characteristics of different languages and different cultures. The requirements of “faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance” are always correct. Strengthening international cooperation in literary translation is an important and urgent issue.

Take the translation of Xi Jinping: The Governance of China as an example. Currently, it has been translated into 24 languages, 10 of which were translated by Chinese translators, and the other 14 were translated by translators from home and abroad. The translation of important literature goes through five procedures, namely, draft translation, proofreading by foreign experts, first review, second review and finalization of translation, with first review and second review as new procedures compared with the past. For Xi Jinping: The Governance of China, before the final proof, the translation has to be proofread by foreign experts for another two times, read through by the finalizer, and discussed by the translation group (with the help of the large screen). These eight procedures help to ensure the quality of the translation, proven by the fact that the Italian version of the book won an Italian literature award.

Literary works need to attract and influence as many readers as possible so as to achieve the best in communication. Of all means of communication, the communication of literary works is the most popular one among the international community and the one most likely to attract readers. Literary works have become the key role in international communication with their unique charm. In addition to a group of publishers, China Foreign Languages Publishing Administration also owns China International Book Trading Corporation, which is responsible for the import and export (especially the export) of Chinese books. The Corporation has a global book distribution network. The “China Books” on Amazon.com is maintained and operated by it. Moreover, the Corporation’s offline sales cover about 100 overseas Chinese bookstores and some important overseas book chain networks. A lot of work and key tasks in the going out of Chinese books have been undertaken by our Corporation. In the field of international social media communication, the Administration has dozens of important social accounts such as those on Facebook and Twitter, with tens of millions of followers covering major countries and regions, becoming an important channel and important position for micro-communication.

The international communication of Chinese culture, literature and civilization is the top priority of China Foreign Languages Publishing Administration. We will continue to follow the mission of explaining China to the world and letting the world understand China, and spare no effort to spread Chinese literature and Chinese literary works to the world. We welcome all the authors present today to create readable and thoughtful works that can warm our hearts. Please contact us in time. We are willing to provide you with all-round, multi-lingual and wide-covering international communication services. Meanwhile, foreign writers present today with excellent literary works adapted to Chinese readers are also welcome to cooperate with us. Last year, we translated and published the literary works of Min Thu Wun, the father of the then President of Myanmar, and held a release ceremony for its Chinese version in Diaoyutai State Guesthouse in Beijing. The then President of Myanmar and his wife attended the ceremony.